The literature and studies on the topic of judicial selection are extensive.
Chief Justice O’Connor’s plan to elevate judicial elections and accomplish
judicial reform in Ohio draws, in part, from the work of previous judicial
selection reform efforts and the work of scholars and experts from diverse
fields, including the law, political science, and other disciplines. Below is a
list of books, journal articles, reports and other resources on judicial
selection. Those available online have direct links. Others are available in the
Ohio Supreme Court Law Library. If you have questions about how to access any of
these resources or have other items to be added, please email
or call 614.387.9250.

Ohio Judicial Reform 2014

Previous Judicial Selection Initiatives

Ohio Courts 2013

Next Steps 2003

Forum on Judicial Selection 2009

Ohio Constitution

Ohio Revised Code – Related Sections

R.C. 1907.13
R.C. 2101.02
R.C. 2301.01
R.C. 2501.02
R.C. 2503.03

Legal Articles

  • Harris Interactive. Civics Education. Chicago: American Bar Association,
    2005. Last accessed April 29, 2013.
  • Perceptions of Fairness and Justice: The Shared Aims and Occasional
    Conflicts of Legitimacy and Moral Credibility (Wake Forest Law Review,
  • Augenblick, Ned and Scott Nicholson. Ballot Position, Choice Fatigue, and
    Voter Behavior. Berkeley: University of California. Last modified December 18,
  • Judicial Independence in the Age of Runaway Campaign Spending: How More
    Vigilant Court Action and Stronger Recusal Statutes Can Reclaim the Perception
    of an Independent Judiciary (Case Western Review Law Review, 2011)
  • Ballot Question Readability and Roll-Off: The Impact of Language
    Complexity (Political Research Quarterly, 2011)
  • Clark, Mary. “Advice and Consent vs. Silence and Dissent? The Contrasting
    Roles of the Legislature in U.S. and U.K. Judicial Appointments.” Louisiana
    Law Review 71, (2011): 451-502.
  • A Legal, Political, and Ethical Analysis of Judicial Selection in Ohio: A
    Proposal for Reform (Capital University Law Review, 2010)
  • Thoughts on Safeguarding Judicial Independence: An Interview with Justice
    Sandra Day O’Connor (American Bar Association, 2009)
  • Voter Rolloff in a Low-Information Context: Evidence From Intermediate
    Appellate Court Elections (American Politics Research, 2009)
  • O’Connor, Sandra Day. “The Essentials and Expendables of the Missouri
    Plan.” Missouri Law Review 74, (2009): 479-494.
  • Gibson, James L. and Gregory A. Caldeira. “Knowing about Courts.” 2nd
    Annual Conference on Empirical Legal Studies Paper. Last modified June 20,
  • Ballot Design and Unrecorded Votes on Paper-Based Ballots (Public Opinion
    Quarterly, 2005)
  • Champagne, Anthony. “Tort Reform and Judicial Selection.” Loyola of Los
    Angles Law Review 38, (2005): 1483-1516.
  • Too Far to the Bottom? Exploring the Phenomenon of Voter Roll-Off (Clark
    and Peterson, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, 2002)
  • Thirty Years of Judicial Retention Elections: An Update (The Social
    Science Journal, 2000)
  • Judicial Election & Appointment at the State Level: Voters’
    Information in Judicial Elections: The 1986 Contests for the Ohio Supreme
    Court (Kentucky Law Journal, 1989)
  • Milligan, William T., and James E. Pohlman. “The 1968 Modern Courts
    Amendment to the Ohio Constitution.” Ohio State Law Journal 29, (1968):


  • American Bar Association Commission on the 21st Century Judiciary. Justice
    in Jeopardy. Chicago: American Bar Association, 2003.
  • American Bar Association Standing Committee on Judicial Independence.
    Standards on State Judicial Selection: Report of the Commission on State
    Judicial Selection Standards. Chicago: American Bar Association, 2000.
  • Bonneau, Chris W. and Melinda Gann Hall. In Defense of Judicial Elections.
    New York: Routledge, 2009.
  • Bowler, Shaun, Todd Donovan and Trudi Happ. “Ballot Propositions and
    Information Costs: Direct Democracy and the Fatigued Voter.” The Western
    Political Quarterly, 45 (1992): 559-568.
  • Burnham, Walter D. “The Changing Shape of the American Political
    Universe.” The American Political Science Review 59, (1965): 7-28.
  • Caufield, Rachel Paine. Inside Merit Selection: A National Survey of
    Judicial Nominating Commissioners. Des Moines: American Judicature Society,
  • Dubois, Philip L. From Ballot to Bench: Judicial Elections and the Quest
    for Accountability. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980.
  • Geyh, Charles Gardner. “Perspectives on Judicial Independence: Why
    Judicial Elections Stink.” Ohio State Law Journal 64, (2003): 43-79.
  • Gibson, James L. Electing Judges: The Surprising Effects of Campaigning on
    Judicial Legitimacy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.
  • Johnson, Charles A, Roger C. Schaefer, and R. Neal McKnight. “The Salience
    of Judicial Candidates and Elections.” Social Science Quarterly 59, no. 2
    (1978): 371-378.
  • Kimball, David C. and Martha Kropf. “Ballot Design and Unrecorded Votes on
    Paper-Based Ballots.” Public Opinion Quarterly 69, no. 4 (2005): 508-529.
  • Krosnik, Jon A, Joanne M. Miller and Michael P. Tichy. “An Unrecognized
    Need for Ballot Reform,”’ in Rethinking the Vote: The Politics and Prospects
    of American Election Reform, edited by Ann N. Crigler, Marion R. Just and
    Edward J. McCaffery, 51-74. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Liptak, Adam and Allison Kopicki. “Approval Rating for Justices Hits Just
    44% in New Poll.” New York Times, June 8, 2012, New York edition.
  • Lovrich, Nicholas P. Jr and Charles H. Sheldon. “Voters in Contested,
    Non-partisan Judicial Elections: A Responsible Electorate or a Problematic
    Public?” Western Political Quarterly 36, no. 2, (1983): 241-256.
  • Meredith, Marc and Yuval Slanat. “On the Causes and Consequences of Ballot
    Order-Effects.” Political Behavior 35, no.1 (2013): 175-197.
  • Miller, Joanne M. and Jon A. Krosnic. “The Impact of Candidate Name Order
    on Election Outcomes.” Public Opinion Quarterly 62, no.3 (1998): 291-330.
  • Norden, Lawrence. “Letter to Governor Haley Barbour.” Brennan Center for
    Justice, September 11, 2008.
  • Opinion Strategies. Ohio Statewide Survey. Washington DC: League of Women
    Voters, October 2002.
  • Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. Supreme Court
    Favorability Reaches New Low. Washington DC: Pew Research Center, 2012.
  • Princeton Survey Research Associates International. Separate Branches,
    Shared Responsibilities: A National Survey of the Public Expectations on
    Solving Justice Issues. Williamsburg: National Center for State Courts,
  • Tarr, G. Alan, and Mary Porter. State Supreme Courts in State and Nation.
    New Haven: Yale University Press , 1988.
  • Streb, Matthew. Rethinking American Electoral Democracy. New York:
    Routledge, 2008.
  • Strickland, S., R. Schauffler, R. LaFountain & K. Holt, eds. “State
    Court Organization: Table 21 Judicial Selection.” National Center for State
    Courts. Last updated March 6, 2013.
  • Suddes, Thomas. “Knowledge Gaps in Metropolitan Ohio: Ohio Supreme Court
    Contests, Newspaper Editorial Pages, and the Cue-Less Reader, 1938-1998.”
    Master’s Thesis, Ohio University, 2002.
  • Sullivan, Kathleen. “Republican Party of Minnesota v. White: What are the
    Alternatives?.” Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics 21, (2008): 1327-
  • Wattenberg, Martin P., Ian McAllister and Anthony Salvanto. ”How Voting is
    Like Taking an SAT Test: An Analysis of Voter Rolloff.” American Politics
    Quarterly 28, (2000): 234-250.


  • “Olmsted Falls v. Upper Arlington,” 10TV Westfield Insurance Brain
    aired April 14, 2014 (Columbus, OH: WBNS10-TV).
  • Cincinnati Enquirer, “Our plea: Why no contest?,” (October 30,
    2013): A14.
  • Thomas Suddes, “Ohio can shake up the system; to help elect better
    judges,” Columbus Dispatch, (September 15, 2013): 6F.
  • Rowland, Darrell. “Poll: Ohioans Support System of Selecting Judges.”
    Columbus Dispatch, December 12, 2012.
  • Crisp, Elizabeth. “Election won’t End Fight Over Judicial Selection
    Conservatives Want More Voter Input and Less Control by Governor and Trial
    Lawyers.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri), October 27, 2012.
  • Kendell, Doug. “The 200-day Club.”, September 27, 2012.
  • PR Newswire. “Two-Thirds of Americans Can’t Name Any U.S. Supreme Court
    Justices, Says New Survey.” June 1, 2010.
  • Cleveland Plain Dealer. “Cash v. Quality: Ohio’s Judicial Elections Smell
    More of Money than Merit, and the Rules Must Change to Give Voters Meaningful
    Choices.” March 5, 2003.

Other Resources

  • Delaware County, Ohio, Board of Elections – Past Election
  • National Center for State Courts
    • Judicial Selection and Retention
    • Judicial Selection in the States:
      • Rottman, David. A Call to Action with Commentary. (November
      • Judicial Democracy. (October 2003). Lexington, KY,
        Council of State Government
      • Vinning, Richard L. Jr. Judicial Departures and the Introduction of Qualified
        Retirement, 1892 – 1953. (2009). Justice System Journal (Vol. 30, No.
      • Danos, Colleen. Judicial Election and Judicial Independence Concerns:
        Stepping Up to the Plate. (March 2003). Knowledge and Information
        Services Memorandum.
      • Judicial Independence and Selection. (2006). Top Ten
        article from “Future Trends in State Courts,” 2006.
      • Aspin, Larry. Judicial Retention Election Trends: 1964-2006. (March
        2007). Judicature 90, no. 5: 208
      • Dancy, Denise. Judicial Selection. (2008). Future Trends in State
      • Judicial Selection and Service (Tables 4-11). (2006).
        State Court Organization 2004. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice,
        Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
      • Caufield, Rachel Paine and Malia Reddick. Judicial Selection: The Process of Choosing Judges. (June 2008). ABA Coalition for Justice.
      • O’Connor Judicial Selection Initiative. Institute for
        the Advancement of the American Legal System, University of Denver.
      • Rottman, David B. The Changing Face of Judicial Elections: Can the Past Tell
        Us About the Future?. (2009). Future Trends in State Courts.
      • Strebb, Matthew J. The Need for More Individual-Level Judicial Election
        Data. (2009). Justice System Journal (Vol. 30, No. 3).
      • Saloka, Rebecca Mae, D. Jason Berggren and Kathryn A. DePalo. The New Politics of Judicial Selection in Florida: Merit
        Selection Redefined. (2006). Justice System Journal (Vol. 27, No.
      • Bonneau, Chris W. Vacancies on the Bench: Open-Seat Elections for State
        Supreme Courts. (2006). Justice System Journal (Vol. 27, No. 2).
      • Voter Opinion on the Election or Appointment of State
        Supreme Court Justices
        . (July 2008). American Justice Partnership

Campaign Financing Reforms

Other AJS links

Helpful Articles or Statements on States’ Judicial